In the Ukrainian People's Republic, Yiddish was a state language along with Ukrainian and Russian.At that time there was created the Jewish National Union and the community was granted an autonomous status.An army of Cossacks and Crimean Tatars massacred and took into captivity a large number of Jews, Roman Catholics and Uniates in 1648–49.In this time of mysticism and overly formal rabbinism came the teachings of Israel ben Eliezer, known as the Baal Shem Tov, or Be Sh T, (1698–1760), which had a profound effect on the Jews of Eastern Europe.The Jewish community in the territory of Ukraine-proper during the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth became one of the largest and most important ethnic minority groups in Ukraine.The Ukrainian Cossack Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky led a Cossack uprising, known as Khmelnytsky Uprising (1648–1657), under the premise that the Poles had sold them as slaves "into the hands of the accursed Jews." At that time it is estimated that the Jewish population in Ukraine numbered 51,325.The term became common after a wave of large-scale anti-Jewish violence swept southern Russian Empire, including Ukraine, between 1881–1884, after Jews were blamed for the assassination of Alexander II.In May 1882, Alexander III of Russia introduced temporary regulations called May Laws that stayed in effect for more than thirty years, until 1917.
In 1989, Ukraine's Jewish population was only slightly more than half of what it was thirty years earlier (in 1959).
A radically different movement was started by Jacob Frank in the middle of the 18th century.
Frank's teachings were extremely unorthodox (such as purification through transgression, as well as adoption of elements of Christianity), and he was excommunicated along with his numerous followers. were hindered when the main territory of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was annexed during the partitions of Poland.
In Ukraine, the number of civilian Jews killed during the period was between 35 and 50 thousand.
Pogroms erupted in January 1919 in the northwest province of Volhynia and spread to many other regions of Ukraine.
From the second part of the 14th century, they were subjects of the Polish kings, and magnates.